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Showing posts with the label UPSC

Post Colonialism and Feminist Theory | Literary Criticism

 Post-Colonialism & Feminism Post Colonial Theory & Criticism : Since about the 90's post colonial theory and criticism has had a major impact on literary and social studies. works like post colonial studies post Colonial literature or postcolonial cinema are frequently encountered. Students of literature, language, social science and law now see their subjects in a new light thanks to the postcolonial theory. The insights from postcolonial theory are so rich that they illuminate not only the abstract world of our ideas but also the everyday world of our habits and practices. Thus, why we dress the way we do, how we view things in terms of inferior-superior dichotomy, why we consider some colours and shapes more important than others can all the partly explained by post colonial theory. Terminology (Colonialism) : Post Colonial : The basic word in post colonial is colony. The word colony gives us many more words namely colonial, colonizer, colonization and decoloni

Critically examine the Marxist theory of State | PSIR | UPSC| Political Theory

 Criticism of Marxist theory of State Q. Critically examine the Marxist theory of State w.r.t. Dictatorship of Proletariat. Answer : Marxist Theory of State views state as an artificial device as opposed to the natural or ethical institution as held by the organic theory. Marxist theory is the class perspective on State. According to which, the state comes into existence when society is divided into two antagonist classes, the dominant class and the dependent class.  Marxist theory treats State as an instrument of capitalist class to control, contain and oppress the working class. The dominant class owns the means of production and uses the machinery of the state to serve its own interests which involve the exploitation of the dependent class.  The pioneers of the class theory of the state—Marx, Engels and Lenin—have made it amply clear that the state is but an instrument of class rule and exploitation. Karl Marx famously proclaimed "State is nothing but an executive committee

Comment on: Pluralist Theory of State | Model Answer| PSIR

 Pluralist Theory of State Q. Comment on: Pluralist Theory of State. Answer : Pluralist theory of State is based on the belief that sovereignty resides not only with the State but many other institutions. It holds that State acts as an umpire or referee in society. Pluralist Theory of State was developed against the monistic theory of State which upholds the legal and absolute sovereignty of the state. Pluralist theory holds that political power should be regarded as analytically distinct from economic power. According to the Pluralist notion, there can be various sources of political power.  Many  social, political, cultural and economic institutions exercise influence in society. For example, family,  religious institutions, charitable trusts, etc. Pluralism as a theory of society asserts that within liberal democracies power is widely and evenly dispersed. Pluralism as a theory of State holds that the state is neutral in so far it is susceptible to the influence of various groups an

Emotional Intelligence UPSC | Ethics | GS-4

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Emotional Intelligence (Ethics) | UPSC Topic: GS Paper - 4 Ethics and Human Interface | Emotional intelligence "Anybody can become angry, that is easy; but to be angry with the right person, and to the right degree, and at the right time, and for the right purpose, and in the right way, that is not within everybody’s power, that is not easy." —Aristotle What is Emotional Intelligence (EI) ? The term was coined by two researchers – Peter Salovey and John Mayer in 1990 however it went popular in 1996 from Daniel Goleman’s book ‘ Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ’. Emotional Intelligence: Emotional intelligence refers to ‘the ability to identify one’s own emotions and those of others, harness and apply them to tasks, and to regulate and manage them’. Emotional Quotient (EQ) is a measure of one’s EI i.e. through a standardized test, one’s awareness of emotions in relation to self and others is known. Four Different Areas of EI (Mayer & Salovey Ability Mo

Organic Theory of State | Political Theory | PSIR | UPSC

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 Organic Theory of State Organic theory of State: 🔹 The earliest concept on the State. 🔹Compares the State with an organism or Living body and the individuals with its organs. Two implications : 1. The existence and worth of individuals depend on the existence of the State similar to the organs' relation with their organism. 2. different groups and classes in society are naturally fit to perform different function similar to the functions of various organs in an organism. Key concept : State as a natural Institution: 🔹 State is a natural institution. 🔹Existence of man can't be imagined without the State. 🔹Ancients Greeks held, " State comes into existence for the sake of life and continues for the sake of good life ". 🔹 Aristotle : man is by nature a political animal. 🔹 One who lives without the State is either a beast or god. 🔹 State is prior to man. Challenged by mechanistic theory in 17th century (scientific revolution) :  Individuals as related atoms.

Probity in Governance | Ethics | UPSC

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 Probity in Governance | UPSC (Ethics) | GS-4 What is Probity? Probity simply means maintaining integrity, uprightness and honesty in professional capacity. Maintaining probity in governance involves more than simply avoiding corrupt or dishonest conduct. It requires ethical behaviour that upholds public values and ensures impartiality, accountability and transparency which, in turn, increases people's confidence to participate in the Governance process. Thus probity can be defined as : Probity is defined as adherence to ethical and moral values like honesty, integrity, rectitude, uprightness etc. It is the presence of procedural integrity with high standards of ethical behaviour.   Probity in Governance : Probity in Governance requires more than the conventional civil service values of performance, integrity and patriotism. Civil servants need to adopt as well as undertake ethical and integrity values, which includes dedication to the service, inner-compulsion for welfare works,

Ethical Characteristics/ Traits in Civil Servants | UPSC | PDF Download

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 Ethical Characteristics/ Traits a Civil Servant must possess (UPSC) Q. What are the five ethical characteristics that can be used to predict a civil servant's effectiveness? Explain why they belong in the matrix. (150 Words) Or Q. Identify five ethical traits on which one can plot the performance of a civil servant. Justify their inclusion in the matrix. (150 Words)(UPSC CSE 2021) Approach : Introduction : Start with mentioning the need for Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration. Body : Chart out the five ethical traits which you consider essential in a civil servant and justify their inclusion with examples. Conclusion : Conclude suitably. Ethical Characteristics & Traits in a Civil Servant Model Answer : Introduction : Ethics can be defined as a set of “moral principles that guide and govern a person’s behaviour or conduct in various situations ”. Ethics relates to those ultimate values and standards by which human actions can